What Happens to My Home If I Go to a Nursing Home ?

Nursing Home – An aging parent who does not have any other assets and believes she would end up on Medicaid sooner rather than later, may not know what would happen to the house that is in both her name and the name of her son.

Nj.com’s recent article entitled “What happens to my house if I go into a nursing home?” says that timing is everything, and the answer may depend on when and how the son obtained his interest in the parent’s house.

If the parent owned the house and put her son’s name on the deed along with hers, the parent made a gift of an interest in the house to her son.

Medicaid has a five-year look back period when a senior applies for Medicaid.

If an applicant made any gifts during this look back period, a penalty period will apply. During that time, an applicant isn’t eligible for Medicaid. However, if the gift was made prior to the five-year period, the penalty period is inapplicable.

If the son bought the interest in the parent’s house, the Medicaid lookback rules don’t apply.

However, in any event, Medicaid requires an applicant to “spend down” her assets to $2,000 (in most states, but the amount may vary) to qualify for the program.

A home the parent or a spouse or disabled child are living in will be considered exempt. However, it won’t be exempt if the parent, spouse, or disabled child, aren’t living in it and have no expectation of returning to it.

If the parent will not be living in or returning to her home, the parent will need to sell her interest in the home before she qualifies for Medicaid.

Alternatively, the parent and her son will have to sell the home, and she will have to use her share of the proceeds before she can qualify for Medicaid.

In addition, if the son is also providing a level of care for the parent for a period of at least two years, the parent has allowed you to stay in her home and not have to relocate to a nursing facility sooner. This exception has a complex set of rules.

Medicaid is complicated and the above information is only general in nature. Medicaid rules sometimes change and can even be applied differently based on where you live. You should consult with an estate planning or elder law attorney to make certain you take the steps that will be most beneficial to your specific set of circumstances.

Reference: nj.com (June 4, 2021) “What happens to my house if I go into a nursing home?”

 

Comments Off on What Happens to My Home If I Go to a Nursing Home ?

Elder Financial Abuse – Fraudsters Target Elderly

Elder Financial Abuse – The National Council on Aging reports that seniors lose an estimated $3 billion to financial scams, which is the worst possible time in life to lose money. There’s simply no time to replace the money. Elder Financial Abuse is easy to understand, as reported in the article “Scam Alert: 4 Types of Fraud That Target the Elderly (and How to Beat Them)” from Kiplinger. People who are 50 years and older hold 83% of the wealth in America, and households headed by people 70 years and up have the highest median net worth. That is where the money is.

The other factor: seniors were raised to mind their manners. An older American may feel it’s rude to hang up on a fast-talking scammer, who will take advantage of their hesitation. Lonely seniors are also happy to talk with someone. Scammers also target widows or divorced older women, thinking they are more vulnerable.

Here are the most common types of elder financial abuse scams today:

Imposter scams. The thief pretends to be someone you can trust to trick you into giving them your personal information like a password, access to a bank account or Social Security number. This category includes phone calls pretending to be from the Social Security Administration or the IRS. They often threaten arrest or legal action. Neither the IRS nor the SSA ever call people to ask for personal information. Hang up!

Medicare representative. A person calls claiming to be a representative from Medicare to get older people to provide personal information. Medicare won’t call to ask for your Social Security number or to obtain bank information to give you new benefits. Phone scammers are able to “spoof” their phone numbers—what may appear on your caller ID as a legitimate office is not actually a call coming from the agency. Before you give any information, hang up. If you have questions, call Medicare yourself.

Lottery and sweepstakes scams. These prey on the fear of running out of money during retirement. These scams happen by phone, email and snail mail, congratulating the recipient with news that they have won a huge lottery or sweepstakes, but the only way to access the prize is by paying a fee. The scammers might even send a paper check to cover the cost of the fee, but that check will bounce. Once you’ve sent the fee money, they’ll pocket it and be gone.

What can you do to protect yourself and your loved ones? Conversations between generations about money become even more important as we age. If an elderly parent talks up a new friend who is going to help them, a red flag should go up. If they are convinced that they are getting a great deal, or a windfall of money from a contest, talk with them about how realistic they are being. Make sure they know that the IRS, Medicare and Social Security does not call to ask for personal information.

For those who have not been able to see elderly parents because of the pandemic, this summer may reveal a lot of what has occurred in the last year. If you are concerned that they have been the victims of a scam, start by filing a report with their state’s attorney general office.

Reference: Kiplinger (June 10, 2021) “Scam Alert: 4 Types of Fraud That Target the Elderly (and How to Beat Them)”

 

Comments Off on Elder Financial Abuse – Fraudsters Target Elderly

What Is Elder Law ?

Elder Law – With medical advancements, the average age of both males and females has increased incredibly.  The issue of a growing age population is also deemed to be an issue legally. That is why there are elder law attorneys.

Recently Heard’s recent article entitled “What Are the Major Categories That Make Up Elder Law?” explains that the practice of elder law has three major categories:

  • Estate planning and administration, including tax issues
  • Medicaid, disability, and long-term care issues; and
  • Guardianship, conservatorship, and commitment issues.

Estate Planning and Administration. Estate planning is the process of knowing who gets what. With a will in place, you can make certain that the process is completed smoothly. You can be relieved to know that your estate will be distributed as you intended. Work with an experienced estate planning attorney to help with all the legalities, including taxes.

Medicaid, Disability, and Long-Term Care Issues. Elder law evolved as a special area of practice because of the aging population. As people grow older, they have more medically-related issues. Medicaid is a state-funded program that supports those with little or no income. The disability and long-term care issues are plans for those who need around-the-clock care. Elder law attorneys help coordinate all aspects of elder care, such as Medicare eligibility, special trust creation and choosing long-term care options.

Guardianship, Conservatorship, and Commitment Matters. This category is fairly straightforward. When a person ages, a disability or mental impairment may mean that he or she cannot act rationally or make decisions on his or her own. A court may appoint an individual to serve as the guardian over the person or as the conservator the estate, when it determines that it is required. The most common form of disability requiring conservatorship is Alzheimer’s, and a court may appoint an attorney to be the conservator, if there is no appropriate relative available.

Reference: Recently Heard (May 26, 2021) “What Are the Major Categories That Make Up Elder Law?”

 

Comments Off on What Is Elder Law ?

How Can I Be Better Long-Distance Caregiver for Dad?

A long-distance caregiver is unable to tell on the phone that a love done is wearing the same clothes every day or that he or she isn’t bathing because they’re afraid of falling in the shower.

NASDAQ’s recent article entitled “How to Be a Better Long-Distance Caregiver” says that more than 1 in 10 caregivers look after family or friends from a distance. This can make the task much harder and expensive. A 2016 AARP survey found that caregivers, in general, spend an average of about $7,000 a year in out-of-pocket expenses. Long-distance caregivers (those who live at least an hour away from the care recipient) incur about $12,000 on average. Long-distance caregivers are more apt than local caregivers to hire help, take unpaid time off work and pay for travel.

For caregivers, guilt is constant, and it’s even greater for long-distance caregivers. Let’s look at some ideas to help:

Form a team. If you can’t physically check in on your loved one regularly, find others who can, including family members or friends who live close by. If you have siblings, they can help, even if they’re also long-distance. They can make daily check-in calls or handle tasks, such as paying bills, making medical appointments and dealing with insurance companies. You may consider employing a geriatric care manager, also known as an aging life care professional, to help you evaluate your loved one’s caregiving needs, hire home health aides, if necessary, and step in if there’s a crisis.

Use technology. Zoom isn’t the only technology that can make life easier for long-distance caregivers. A medical alert system can let a family member know to get help. Some even have fall detection technology that works, even if the person isn’t wearing a special device. Smart pill dispensers also manage medications and can alert caregivers if doses aren’t taken. Smart home systems can also help with locking doors and can allow you to grant access to someone, such as a friend, a health worker, or a paramedic from afar. A smart thermostat can help you ensure a comfortable temperature, and a smart home security system can let you know if your loved one has left the house.

Maximize available resources. Your elderly family member may be eligible for public benefits that could help with caregiving tasks or costs. Look at benefits.gov and the U.S. Administration on Aging’s Eldercare Locator. Your elderly family member may have other resources that can be tapped, like long-term care insurance, savings, or home equity, or veteran’s benefits.

Reference: NASDAQ (May 27, 2021) “How to Be a Better Long-Distance Caregiver”

Comments Off on How Can I Be Better Long-Distance Caregiver for Dad?

Can I Get a Tax Break for Long-Term Care ?

The skyrocketing costs of long-term care (LTC) can ruin your retirement savings. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services found that 27% of Americans turning 65 this year will have at least $100,000 in long-term-care costs, and 18% will require care costing more than $250,000.

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Deduct Expenses for Long-Term Care on Your Tax Return” says that if you need LTC, you may be able to deduct a portion of the costs on your tax return. If you purchased a long-term-care insurance (LTCI) policy to cover the costs, you may also be able to deduct some of your premium payments. Since retirement planning includes long-term care, it’s important to know how these Tax Break for Long-Term Care can help to offset overall costs.

Long-Term-Care Costs

The IRS allows you to deduct unreimbursed costs for long-term care as a medical expense, if certain requirements are met. This includes eligible expenses for in-home, assisted living and nursing-home services. The long-term care must be medically necessary and may include preventive, therapeutic, treating, rehabilitative, personal care, or other services. The cost of meals and lodging at an assisted-living facility or nursing home is also included, if the primary reason for being there is to receive qualified medical care.

The care must also be for a chronically ill person and provided under a care plan prescribed by a doctor. The IRS says that a person is “chronically ill,” if he or she can’t perform at least two activities of daily living. These are things like eating, bathing, or dressing. They must be unable to do these without help for at least 90 days. This condition must be certified in writing within the last year. A person with a severe cognitive impairment, like dementia, is also considered chronically ill, if supervision is needed to protect his or her health and safety.

To get the deduction, you have to itemize deductions on your tax return. However, itemized deductions for medical expenses are only allowed to the extent they exceed 7.5% of your adjusted gross income.

An adult child can claim a medical expense deduction on his own tax return for the cost of a parent’s care, if he can claim the parent as a dependent.

Insurance Premiums

The IRS also allows a limited deduction for certain LTCI premiums. Similar to the deduction for long-term-care services, this has to be an itemized deduction for medical expenses. Again, only premiums exceeding the 7.5% of AGI threshold are deductible. (Note that self-employed individuals may be able to deduct premiums paid for LTCI as an adjustment to income without having to itemize.)

In addition, the LTCI policy is required to satisfy certain requirements for the premiums to be deductible. The policy can only cover long-term-care services, so the deduction only applies to traditional LTCI policies, not “hybrid” policies that combine life insurance with long-term-care benefits. This deduction also has an age-related cap. For 2021, the cap is $5,640 if you’re older than 70, $4,520 if you’re 61 to 70 and $1,690 if you’re 51 to 60. (For those 41 to 50, it’s $850, and for 40 or younger, it’s $450.)

These Tax Break for Long-Term Care can be valuable for people in their seventies and older.

Reference: Kiplinger (March 23, 2021) “Deduct Expenses for Long-Term Care on Your Tax Return”

 

Comments Off on Can I Get a Tax Break for Long-Term Care ?

Victory Against Medicaid Penalty for Adults Caring for Parents at Home

A New Jersey Appellate Division recently reaffirmed the state’s regulation that allows older adults to transfer their homes to adult caregiver children without Medicaid penalty, reports an article titled “Major Victory for Adults Who Provide Home Care for Parents” from The National Law Review. The regulation permits the home to be transferred with no Medicaid penalty, when the adult child has provided care to the parent for a period of two years. This allows the parents to remain at home under the care of their children, delaying the need to enter a long-term care facility.

New Jersey Medicaid has tried to narrow this rule for many years, claiming that the regulation only applies to caregivers who did not work outside of the home. This decision, along with other cases, recognizes that caregivers qualify if they meet the requirements of the regulation, regardless of whether they work outside of the home.

The court held that the language of the regulations requires only that:

  • The adult child must live with the parent for two years, prior to the parent moving into a nursing facility.
  • The child provided special care that allowed the parent to live at home when the parent would otherwise need to move out of their own home and into a nursing care facility.
  • The care provided by the adult child was more than personal support activities and was essential for the health and safety of the parent.

In the past, qualifying to transfer a home to an adult caregiver child was met by a huge obstacle: the caregiver was required to either provide all care to the parents or pay for any care from their own pockets. This argument has now been firmly rejected in the decision A.M. v. Monmouth County Board of Social Services.

The court held that there was nothing in the regulation requiring the child to be the only provider of care, and the question of who paid for additional care was completely irrelevant legally regarding Medicaid Penalty.

It is now clear that as long as the child personally provides essential care without which the parent would need to live in a nursing facility, then the fact that additional caregivers may be needed does not preclude the ability to transfer the home to the adult child.

The decision is a huge shift, and one that elder law estate planning attorneys have fought over for years, as there have been increasingly stricter interpretation of the rule by New Jersey Medicaid.

While Medicaid is a federal program, each state has the legal right to set its own eligibility requirements regarding Medicaid Penalty. This New Jersey Appellate Court decision is expected to have an influence over other states’ decisions in similar circumstances. Since every state is different, adult children should speak with an elder law estate planning attorney about how the law of their parent’s state of residence would apply if they were facing this situation.

Reference: The National Law Review (March 22, 2021) “Major Victory for Adults Who Provide Home Care for Parents”

 

Comments Off on Victory Against Medicaid Penalty for Adults Caring for Parents at Home

Does My Family have to Pay My Credit Card Debt when I Die?

Market Realist’s recent article entitled “What Happens to Credit Card Debt When You Die?” says that the short answer is that the deceased’s estate pays off any credit cards they have left behind. Credit card  and other debts can pass on to others in some cases, which is a big reason why estate planning is so important.

When a person dies, their assets are frozen until his or her will is verified, their obligations are settled and their beneficiaries are identified in the probate process.

Then, the state will order that the deceased’s remaining assets (such as leftover cash and property with cash value) be used to pay off the credit card. However, retirement accounts, eligible brokerage accounts, and life insurance payouts are usually protected from this debt reconciliation. Once the debts are settled, the beneficiaries get their inheritance.

The obligations are paid off until they’re all settled, or until the estate runs out of money. Unsecured debts, like credit cards, are usually paid off after secured debts, administrative fees and attorney fees.

There are some circumstances in which another person is legally obligated to pay the deceased’s debt.

Typically, no one is legally required to pay off a deceased individual’s debts, but there are some exceptions:

  • Co-signers must pay loans
  • Joint account holders must pay credit card accounts
  • Spouses have to pay particular types of debt in some states; and
  • Executors of an estate must pay outstanding bills out of property jointly owned by the surviving and deceased spouses in some states.

In addition, surviving spouses may be required to use community property to pay their deceased spouse’s debt in certain states.

The community property states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Alaska would also be included in this list, if a special agreement is in place.

If there was no joint account, co-signer, or other exception, only the estate of the deceased person owes.

Reference: Market Realist (Feb. 11, 2021) “What Happens to Credit Card Debt When You Die?”

 

Comments Off on Does My Family have to Pay My Credit Card Debt when I Die?

How Can I Prep for a Telehealth Appointment?

Caring Bridge’s August 2020 article entitled “5 Tips to Prepare for a Telehealth Appointment” shares five steps to prepare for a virtual doctor’s appointment that will allow you to get the most out of your telehealth experience.

  1. Check your Technology. You need a computer, smartphone, or tablet with a camera for a telehealth appointment. Without a camera, it’s just a phone call, which may not be as effective, since your doctor can’t observe any physical symptoms or your physical expressions during the chat. Get the software and test it out beforehand.
  2. Get Your Medical Info Handy. You may be asked to fill out and return symptom and history forms by the day before your appointment. You should also be sure to write down notes for yourself for the predictable questions you’ll be asked during the visit itself like: When did this start? What makes the pain or issue better or worse? Don’t waste time trying to think through the answers to these questions on the spot.
  3. Be Ready to Do Your Own Physical Exam. Be ready to participate in your own physical exam. You may want to get a good scale, thermometer and blood pressure monitor to conduct your own exam. If you are able, on the day of your call, measure and document your blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and weight. You should also wear clothing that will make it easy to do the necessary show and tell during the call.
  4. Make a List of Your Questions. Create this list for the doctor in advance of your telehealth visit and be sure to prioritize them to make sure your main issues are addressed first. If all your questions aren’t covered, ask for a follow up telehealth visit.
  5. Sit in a Comfortable Spot. A typical telehealth visit takes about 20 minutes. Use the bathroom beforehand and have a glass of water handy, so you don’t have to get up. Create a comfortable, quiet space.

Remember, telehealth visits aren’t a replacement for ALL visits. You should be seen in-person if you believe you or a loved one are experiencing a heart attack, stroke, a head injury, trauma, or bleeding.

Telehealth is a terrific way to deliver medical care, provided we know its limitations.

Make the most of your visit by following these tips.

Reference: Caring Bridge (Aug. 18, 2020) “5 Tips to Prepare for a Telehealth Appointment”

 

Comments Off on How Can I Prep for a Telehealth Appointment?

How to Avoid Medicaid Estate Recovery

Medicaid is a government program that helps seniors and others pay for long term care. However, it’s not always free, explains the article “What Is Medicaid Estate Recovery?” from AOL.com. The Medicaid Estate Recovery Program (MERP) is used by states to recover costs from estates with funds. The goal of Medicaid estate recovery is to make the program affordable for the government, but it can have a severe impact on the beneficiaries of Medicaid recipients. An estate planning elder law attorney should be contacted, if you believe you or a loved one may need Medicaid.

Seniors are eligible for Medicare when they turn 65. This program pays for many healthcare expenses, but not for long-term care in a nursing home. Medicaid is used when someone does not have long term care insurance or enough money to pay for long-term care out of pocket. Medicaid can also be used for long-term or nursing home care, if steps have been taken to protect assets. This usually includes strategies, like trusts and Medicaid Asset Protection Trusts (MAPT).

A federal law passed in 1993 (the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) requires states to attempt to seek reimbursement from a Medicaid beneficiary’s estate after they have died. Some of the costs that the state will try to recover include:

  • Nursing home costs
  • Home and community-based services
  • Medical services received through a hospital where the recipient is a long-term care patient
  • Prescription drug services for long-term care recipient

The recovery program lets Medicaid pursue any eligible assets owned by the estate. While this depends upon where you live, any assets that are part of the probate estate could be attached, including:

  • Bank accounts
  • Your home or other real estate
  • Vehicles or other real property

In addition, some states allow Medicaid to recover assets that are not subject to probate, including jointly held accounts, Payable-On-Death (POD) bank accounts, real estate owned in joint tenancy with right of survivorship, living trusts and any other assets that the Medicaid recipient had a legal interest in.

An estate planning elder care attorney in your state will know what types of assets your state tends to pursue and will help you understand what can and cannot be used for Medicaid benefit recovery.

Note that while Medicaid cannot take the primary residence while the recipient is still living, they can place a lien on the home. If the recipient passes away and a beneficiary inherits the home, they will not be able to sell the property until the lien has been satisfied.

For beneficiaries, Medicaid estate recovery means a smaller inheritance. However, that’s not the only thing to be mindful of. There are laws known as “filial responsibility laws” that allow healthcare providers to sue the children of long-term care recipients to recover nursing care costs. This is not commonly done as of this writing, but the costs of COVID may change this in the near future.

Strategic planning can help you or loved ones avoid the financial impact of Medicaid estate recovery. If you are eligible and can afford to buy a long-term care policy, that may help to cover most of the cost of care. Another option is to remove as many assets from the probate process as possible. An estate planning attorney will be able to help you create a plan to protect your assets.

Reference: AOL.com (February 5, 2021) “What Is Medicaid Estate Recovery?”

Suggested Key Terms:

Comments Off on How to Avoid Medicaid Estate Recovery

Elder Financial Abuse Increases with Social Isolation

Social isolation , whether because of a pandemic or because an elderly person is alone, is a leading factor contributing to the financial exploitation of seniors. The necessity of quarantining for older adults because of COVID has increased the number of people vulnerable to elder financial abuse, reports the article “Social Isolation and the Risk of Investment Fraud” from NASDAQ.com.

Financial abuse can take place at any time during a person’s life. However, scammers typically strike during times when seniors are more susceptible. It is usually during a health crisis, after the death of a loved one, or when younger family members live far away.

Scammers get information about their prospective victims by reading the obituaries and social media. They also become involved with senior social and support groups to ingratiate themselves into seniors’ lives.

Combine social isolation with lessening cognitive capacity and the situation is ripe for a scam. Senior investors are often flattered when their new-found friends praise their superior understanding of investment opportunities. Decreased judgment paired with a lifetime of savings is a welcome mat for thieves, especially when friends and family members are not able to visit and detect changes indicating that something bad is occurring.

Widowed or divorced seniors are more likely to be victimized. People who suffer from isolation, more and more often turn to the internet as a social outlet. Research shows that people are contacted by scammers through social media or pop-up messages on websites. Those who are dependent and engage more frequently in online life are more likely to engage with a scammer and lose more money than those who are targeted by phone or scamming emails.

How to protect yourself or your aging parents from fraud during quarantine

Scammers isolate their victims. Talk with family, friends, your estate planning attorney, or financial advisor for advice before making any decisions.

Do your homework first. If you don’t know how to do an internet search to see if the website or the person is a scammer, talk with a family member or professional advisor who can. Don’t invest money, unless you fully understand the risks and can verify the legitimacy of the offer and the company involved.

Educate yourself about finances and investments. This is a good project for people with too much time on their own. There are many worthwhile websites where you can learn about investments and finances. Look for well-known financial publishing companies. Don’t bother with marginal websites—that’s where fraudsters lurk.

Don’t be embarrassed to file a complaint. If you think you have been defrauded, you can file a complaint with the SEC, FINRA, and your state securities regulator. Your estate planning attorney will also know what resources you can tap to defend yourself.

Warning Signs of Elder Financial Abuse:

  • A new “friend” who suddenly appears and tries to keep family and friends away.
  • Someone who presses you to provide financial information and passwords to accounts.
  • Fear or anxiety when a certain person calls or sends a text.
  • Sudden and unexplained changes in estate planning documents or beneficiary designations.
  • Anyone who asks for passwords to financial accounts.

Generally speaking, anyone who promises a high return with no risk is not telling the truth. The same goes for anyone who tells you that you need to act fast.

Seniors who are socially distant can stay in touch with family and friends through phone calls and if they can manage the devices, by video chat. Regular contact goes a long way in preventing strangers with bad intentions from insinuating themselves into your life or your parent’s lives.

Reference: NASDAQ.com (Feb. 11, 2021) “Social Isolation and the Risk of Investment Fraud”

 

Comments Off on Elder Financial Abuse Increases with Social Isolation