My Children Really Don’t Want My Stuff?

Next Avenue’s recent article entitled “Your Top 10 Objects Your Kids Don’t Want” gives us a list of these items and what to do with them.

Books. Unless your grown children are professors, they don’t want your books. If you think the book is rare, call a book antiquarian.

Paper Ephemera. Snapshots, old greeting cards and postcards are called paper ephemera. Did you know that? Me neither. Old photos are not worth anything, unless the subject is a celebrity or linked with an important historical event. Old greeting cards are not valuable, unless handmade by a famous artist or sent by a celebrity. Postcards are valued mainly for the stamps. Take all your family snapshots and have them made into digital files. The other option is to sell those old snapshots to greeting card publishers who use them on funny cards or give family photos to image archive businesses, like Getty. If the archive is a not-for-profit, take the donation write-off.

Steamer Trunks, Sewing Machines and Film Projectors. Thrift stores are full of these items. Therefore, unless your family member was a professional and the item is top-notch, yours can go there as well.

Porcelain Figurine Collections and Bradford Exchange Pieces. Your collections of frogs, shoes, flowers, and trolls, as well your Hummel’s, and Precious Moments won’t be wanted by the children. See if you can find a retirement home that does a gift exchange at Christmas and donate the figurines. If you want to hold on to a memory of your mom’s collection, have a professional photographer take a photo for your wall. Collector’s plates won’t sell. Donate these as well.

Silver-Plated Stuff. Your children won’t polish silverplate, so if you give them platters, serving bowls, tea services and candelabra, you won’t enhance your standing. The exception may be silver-plated items from Tiffany or Cartier but give these away to any place or person who will take it.

Heavy, Dark, Antique Furniture. There’s still a market for this sort of furniture at secondhand shops. However, you’ll get less than a quarter of purchase price, if you sell on consignment. Unless your furniture is mid-century modern, there’s a good chance you will have to pay someone to take it off your hands. Instead, donate it and take a non-cash charitable contribution using fair market valuation.

Persian Rugs. No, these aren’t really in vogue for younger adults. However, the high-end market is still collecting in certain parts of the country, like Martha’s Vineyard. However, unless the rug is rare, it’s one of the hardest things to sell these days. If you think the value of the rug is below $2,000, it will be a hard sell. Like antique furniture, it may be best to donate these.

Linens. No, they don’t want them. They might not even own an iron or ironing board, and they definitely don’t set that kind of table. Give these to needlewomen who make handmade Christening clothes, wedding dresses and quinceañera gowns. You may also donate linens to costume shops of theaters and deduct the donation. A site like P4a.com has auction results to establish the fair market value of such objects.

Sterling Silver Flatware and Crystal Wine Services. Matching sets of sterling flatware are tough to sell because they rarely go for “antique” value. Do the children do a lot of formal entertaining? The same is true for crystal. These sets are too precious, and the wine they hold is too small a portion. Sites like Replacements.com offer matching services for people who do enjoy silver flatware and have recognized patterns. Because they sell per piece, and therefore buy per piece, sellers get a rather good price.

Fine Porcelain Dinnerware. Your grown children may not want to store four sets of fancy porcelain dinnerware and won’t see the benefit of unpacking it once a year for a holiday or event. China is something to consider selling. Know your pattern to get a quote. Some replacement companies buy per piece, so the aggregate of the selling price is always more than a bulk sale at a consignment store, which might be the only other option.

Reference: Next Avenue (March 1, 2018) “Your Top 10 Objects Your Kids Don’t Want”

 

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What are non-probate Assets ?

In many families, more assets pass outside the Last Will than through the Last Will. Think about non-probate assets: life insurance proceeds, investment accounts, jointly titled real estate assets, assuming they were titled as joint tenants with right of survivorship, and the like. These often add up to considerable sums, often more than the probate estate.

This is why a recent article from The Mercury titled “Planning Ahead: Pay attention to your non-probate assets” strongly urges readers to pay close attention to accounts transferred by beneficiary.

Most retirement accounts like IRAs, 401(k)s, 403(b)s and others pass by beneficiary designation and not through the Last Will. Banks and investment accounts designated as Payable on Death (POD) or Transfer on Death (TOD) also do not pass through probate, but to the other person named on the account. Any property owned by a trust does not go through probate, one of the reasons it is placed in the trust.

Why is it important to know whether assets pass through probate or by beneficiary designation? Here’s an example. A man was promised half of this father’s estate. His dad had remarried, and the son didn’t know what estate plans had been made, if any, with the new spouse. When the father passed, the man received a single check for several thousand dollars. He knew his father’s estate was worth considerably more.

What is most likely to have happened is simple. The father probably retitled the house with his new spouse as tenants by the entireties–making it a non-probate asset. He probably retitled bank accounts with his new spouse. And if the father had a new Last Will created, he likely gave 50% to the son and 50% to the new spouse. The father’s car may have been the only asset not jointly owned with his new spouse.

A parent can also accidently disinherit an heir, if all of their non-probate assets are in one child’s name and no provision for the non-probate assets has been made for any other children. An estate planning attorney can work with the parents to find a way to make inheritances equal, if the intention is for all of the children to receive an equal share. One way to accomplish this would be to give the other children a larger share of probated assets.

Any division of inheritance should bear in mind the tax liability of assets. Non-probate does not always mean non-taxed. Depending upon the state of residence for the decedent and the heirs, there may be estate or inheritance tax on the assets.

Placing assets in an irrevocable trust is a commonly used estate planning method to ensure inheritances are received by the intended parties. The trust allows you to give very specific instructions about who gets what. Assets in the trust are outside of the probate estate, since the trust is not owned by the grantor.

Your estate planning attorney will be able to review probate and non-probate assets to determine the best way to achieve your wishes for your distribution of assets.

Reference: The Mercury (April 12, 2022) “Planning Ahead: Pay attention to your non-probate assets”

 

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What’s the Difference between Probate Assets and Non-Probate Assets?

Probate – Updating estate plans and reviewing beneficiary designations are both important estate planning tasks, more important than most people think. They’re easy to fix while you are alive, but the problems created by ignoring these tasks occur after you have passed, when they can’t be easily fixed or, can’t be fixed at all. The article “Who gets the brokerage account?” from Glen Rose Reporter shares one family’s story.

The father of three children had an estate plan done when the children were in their twenties. His Last Will and Testament directed all assets in a substantial brokerage account to be equally divided between the three children.

His Last Will was never updated.

Thirty years later, his two sons are successful, affluent physicians with high incomes. His daughter is a retired educator who had raised two children as a single mom and struggled financially for many years.

When her father met with his investment advisor, he signed a beneficiary designation leaving the substantial brokerage account, including the substantial growth occurring over the years, to his daughter.

When he dies, the two brothers claim his Last Will, dividing all assets equally, must be the final word. They insist the brokerage account is to be divided equally among the three children.

Any assets held in an account with a beneficiary designation are considered non-probate assets. They do not pass through the probate process. Their disposition is not controlled by the Last Will. The contract between the institution and the individual is paramount.

Insurance policies, retirement accounts, bank and brokerage accounts usually have these designations. They often include a pay-on-death provision, and the person who is to receive the assets upon death of the owner is clearly named.

If the owner of the account fails to sign a right of survivorship, pay-on-death or to name a beneficiary designation before they die, then the assets are paid by the financial institution to the probate estate. This is to be avoided, however, since it complicates what could be a simple transaction.

The two sons were correctly advised by an estate planning attorney of their sister’s full and protected right to receive the investment account, despite their wishes. When the provisions in the Last Will conflict with a contract made between an owner and a financial institution, the contract prevails.

In this case, a less financially secure daughter and her family benefited from the wishes and foresight of her father.

Last Wills and beneficiary designations need to be reviewed and revised to ensure that they reflect the wishes of the parent as time goes by.

Reference: Glen Rose Reporter (Jan. 13, 2022) “Who gets the brokerage account?”

 

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What Is Considered an Asset in an Estate?

Estate planning attorneys are often asked if a particular asset will be included in an estate, from life insurance and real estate to employment contracts and Health Savings Accounts. The answer is explored in the aptly-titled article, “Will It (My Home, My Life Insurance, Etc.) Be in My Estate?” from Kiplinger.

When you die, your estate is defined in different ways for different planning purposes. You have a gross estate for federal estate taxes. However, there’s also the probate estate. You may also be thinking of whether an asset is part of your estate to be passed onto heirs. It depends on which part of your estate you’re focusing on.

Let’s start with life insurance. You’ve purchased a policy for $500,000, with your son as the designated beneficiary. If you own the policy, the entire $500,000 death benefit will be included in your gross estate for federal estate tax purposes. If your estate is big enough ($12.06 million in 2022), the entire death benefit above the exemption is subject to a 40% federal estate tax.

However, if you want to know if the policy will be included in your probate estate, the answer is no. Proceeds from life insurance policies are not subject to probate, since the death benefit passes by contract directly to the beneficiaries.

Next, is the policy an estate asset available for heirs, creditors, taxing authorities, etc.? The answer is a little less clear. Since your son was named the designated beneficiary, your estate can’t use the proceeds to fulfill bequests made to others through your will. Even if you disowned your son since naming him on the policy and changed your will to pass your estate to other children, the life insurance policy is a contract. Therefore, the money is going to your son, unless you change this while you are still living.

However, there’s a little wrinkle here. Can the proceeds of the life insurance policy be diverted to pay creditors, taxes, or other estate obligations? Here the answer is, it depends. An example is if your son receives the money from the insurance company but your will directs that his share of the probate estate be reduced to reflect his share of costs associated with probate. If the estate doesn’t have enough assets to cover the cost of probate, he may need to tap the proceeds to pay his share.

Another aspect of figuring out what’s included in your estate depends upon where you live. In community property states—Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin—assets are treated differently for estate tax purposes than in states with what’s known as “common law” for married couples. Also, in most states, real estate owned on a fee simple basis is simply transferred on death through the probate estate, while in other states, an alternative exists where a Transfer on Death (TOD) deed is used.

This legal jargon may be confusing, but it’s important to know, because if property is in your probate estate, expenses may vary from 2% to 6%, versus assets outside of probate, which have no expenses.

Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney in your state of residence to know what assets are included in your federal estate, what are part of your probate estate and what taxes will be levied on your estate from the state or federal governments and don’t forget, some states have inheritance taxes your heirs will need to pay.

Reference: Kiplinger (Dec. 13, 2021) “Will It (My Home, My Life Insurance, Etc.) Be in My Estate?”

 

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Debt Collection – Do I Have to Pay Off Husband’s Debts after He Dies?

Debt Collection – After the loss of a spouse, before doing anything, take a sec to catch your breath and make sure you understand your rights and responsibilities regarding debt collection. You may not be liable for some debts, including even certain types of credit card charges, which may be forgiven at death. However, other debts can linger much longer.

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Am I Responsible for Paying Off My Deceased Husband’s Debt?” says you should understand that you’re typically not personally responsible for paying off your spouse’s debts because any loans would normally be paid off by his estate. This includes credit card debt, student loans, car loans, mortgages and business loans.

When a spouse passes away owing a debt, the debt doesn’t immediately disappear. Instead, the estate is liable for paying any outstanding debts, and the personal representative, executor, or administrator will pay debts owed from the money in the estate. It’s not paid from the surviving spouse’s savings.  However, if the surviving spouse inherits certain assets from the deceased spouse through beneficiary designations or joint account ownership, and the estate assets are not enough to satisfy the creditors, they may try to make a claim against those assets that pass directly to the surviving spouse outside of the probate estate.

A surviving spouse may also be responsible for certain types of debts. For example, if the debt is jointly owned or he or she has co-signed a loan, the surviving spouse is obligated to continue to pay this debt. There are also states that require a surviving spouse to pay off any medical bills the deceased incurred before their death.

You should be familiar with the laws of your state, so you know your liability on all debts. This is because some community property states say you’re responsible for the debt, even if it’s not in your name. Community property laws make both spouses equally liable for debts incurred after the marriage has taken place. There are currently nine community-property states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin.

If the surviving spouse is a joint account holder on a credit card, he or she would need to continue to pay off the credit card because both spouses are both considered owners of the account and share equally in the ownership of any charges on the card.

Unfortunately, some debt collectors are inappropriately aggressive. Therefore, if a debt collector says you’re responsible for the account balance, but you think you’re not, ask for evidence. Speak with an experienced estate planning or elder law attorney to understand in what situations you are obligated to pay and when you’re not.

Reference: Kiplinger (Nov. 28, 2021) “Am I Responsible for Paying Off My Deceased Husband’s Debt?”

 

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Probate – How Does a Will Work after Death?

Probate – A last will and testament, often referred to as simply a “will,” is the best known estate planning document. However, it’s also one of the most misunderstood, says an article titled “Most people don’t fully understand how wills work” from The News-Enterprise.

Don’t confuse a will with a Living Will. The Living Will concerns your wishes for end-of-life decision making, like whether you want to be kept alive by artificial means. A will is your declaration of how you want your property to be distributed after death.

Generally speaking, there are five main parts to a will. The first is a statement of your marital status and family relationships. It recognizes your natural heirs and states the relationship, even if they are not named later on as beneficiaries.

The second part of the will discussed how property is to be divided and distributed. This may include a list of beneficiaries and what percentage of the estate they are to receive. It may include instructions for distributions over a period of time, although a trust is usually used to control distribution. Personal items, including those of value, like jewelry, and those of sentimental value, like Mom’s favorite serving platter, can be listed in this section.

The third part names the people you have chosen to fulfill specific roles. That includes the executor, who is the person responsible for carrying out the instructions in the will. Always name a successor executor, in case the primary executor predeceases you or chooses not to serve. Some people are comfortable naming a tertiary executor, just in case.

The will includes information on the rights and duties of the executor, authorizing the executor to pay bills from the estate owed to creditors, final illness expenses and funeral expenses. Depending on your situation, it can also include information on whether the executor may acquire assets, sell real estate and personal property and make charitable gifts. Most executors file the last and final federal and state tax returns for the decedent.

If there are minor or disabled children, the will is used to name a guardian for them. If this detail is neglected, the court will appoint a guardian for minor or disabled children. It may not be the person you would have chosen. Over time, as your children grow and especially if their relationships with family members change, this should be updated. The same doting aunt who adored your three year old may not have the same relationship with the teenager she has now become.

Having a will means that property passes through probate, a court proceeding to make sure the will is valid and conforms to the laws of the state. Unless property has passed through a trust or a payable on death account, it goes through probate. The will is filed with the court, when it becomes part of the public record and may be read by anyone who wants to see its contents.

A will provides no protection from creditors. The will only becomes effective after death, so it only applies to whatever property is available after the person has died. By law, debts must be paid before beneficiaries receive property.

Reference: The News-Enterprise (Nov. 9, 2021) “Most people don’t fully understand how wills work”

 

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Can You Make Heirs Behave from the Grave?

Imposing strange or amusing conditions upon heirs may make for good novels. However, in the real world, terms and conditions are limited by the law. A last will or trust contains language specifying how you want assets to be distributed after your death. There are some conditions and terms included, but others should be left for fiction authors, according to a recent article titled “What Can You Force Your Heirs to Do To Get Your Wealth” from Forbes.

If something is illegal or against public policy, it is not acceptable in a last will. Defining public policy is not as easy as whether something is illegal, but it can be described effectively enough, or clarified by your estate planning lawyer. For example, making a gift of land to the town on the condition that an offensive statue be placed in the middle of the land would be against public policy. Requiring heirs to not marry a specific person or type of person before they can inherit is considered illegal in a last will. Beneficiaries are not to be prevented to live their lives freely through the force of a last will.

Whether a condition is valid also depends upon whether it is a precedent that existed at the date of your death or a condition that occurs after your death. For instance, a requirement for a beneficiary to live in a specific location at the time of your death might be considered valid by a court. However, a condition requiring a spouse to never remarry would not be valid.

Blatantly illegal terms of an inheritance are easy terminated. Leaving money to a known terrorist organization or requiring an heir to commit a crime is an easy no-go. However, sometimes things get murky. Restraints on getting married or selling or transferring property are two of the biggest problems, and often the stories behind the last wills are sad ones.

A condition of not marrying, divorcing, or remarrying is not legal. However, a condition that heirs do not marry outside of the faith has been enforced as a valid last will condition. A complete prohibition of a second marriage by a surviving spouse has been deemed void. It should be noted that certain requests have been permitted, like having a surviving spouse lose payments from a trust when they remarry. As antiquated as it may sound, courts have affirmed the concept of the specific limitation to provide financial support only until the surviving spouse remarries and is, therefore, not void.

A probate court will not void a condition on a bequest automatically, even if it is clearly illegal. The beneficiary, or another interested party, must file with the probate court to have the condition voided. If you fail to do so, when the last will or trust is allowed, it is possible to lose your right to void the condition.

A better way to go: don’t try to control your heir’s behavior from the grave. It creates terrible ill will and may cloud a lifetime of happy memories. If you don’t want to give something to someone, your estate planning attorney will help you create an estate plan, and possibly a trust, to control how your assets are distributed.

Reference: Forbes July 21, 2021 “What Can You Force Your Heirs to Do To Get Your Wealth”

 

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Why Did Texas Siblings Come to Blows Over Inheritance ?

Inheritance – A lawsuit in Texas alleges that Michael Mowrey hit his sister Stacy Alley, shoved her and choked her. He was criminally charged with felony assault and accepted a plea deal.

However, these criminal proceedings do not result in repayment to the victim.

San Angelo Live’s recent article entitled “Sibling Choked Over Inheritance” reports that the reason for the incident wasn’t stated by the plaintiff in the court documents. However, court documents do reveal that their father’s inheritance was an object of contention.

Alley originally brought the lawsuit against her brother for monetary damages for medical bills, legal fees, lost wages and the emotional effects of the life-threatening attack.

Instead of going to trial, the brother and sister agreed to submit to mediation.

The results of the mediation were recently released. The outcome is binding.

They agree to partition or split the 446-acre cotton farm owned by their deceased father Gene Mowrey. In the agreement, Alley gets 306 acres and Mowrey gets 140 acres.

Mowrey must convey his one-half interest in the estate’s Oklahoma minerals to Stacey Hamilton (another sibling), along with his one-half interest in the escrowed mineral production attributable to the Oklahoma minerals.

The two sisters (Hamilton and Alley) are required under the deal to execute a deed that conveys all of their rights, title and interest in their father’s home to Michael. As a result, he will own 100% of that home.

The reason for the violent incident appears to have been a fight over their inheritance.

It was not clear if Michael Mowrey suffered any real losses as a result of the outburst.

While he lost a majority of the rights to the family cotton farm, and his share of the family’s mineral rights, he gained the home.

Reference: San Angelo Live (June 27, 2021) “Sibling Choked Over Inheritance”

 

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What are the Advantages of a Testamentary Trust ?

One reason to have a last will and testament is to protect minor children. A will offers a means of providing for a minor child through a testamentary trust, which is also a good tool for leaving an inheritance to someone who might not use their bequest wisely, says the recent article “What is a Testamentary Trust and How Do I Create One?” from wtop news.

Trusts are legal entities that hold assets, and money or other assets in the trust are managed according to the wishes of the person who created the trust, known as the grantor. A testamentary trust is created through the person’s will and becomes effective upon their death. Once the person dies, their assets are placed in the trust and are distributed according to the directions in the trust.

A trust can also be created while a person is living, called a revocable trust or a living trust. Assets moved into the trust are distributed directly to heirs upon the person’s death and do not go through the probate process. However, they are administered without probate, as long as they are in effect. Living trusts are also managed outside of the court system, while testamentary trusts are administered through probate as long as they are in effect.

A testamentary trust is used to manage money for children. However, it can also protect assets in other situations. If you are concerned about an adult child getting divorced and don’t want their inheritance to be lost to a divorce, a trust is one way to keep their inheritance from being considered a marital asset.

The oversight by the court could be useful in some situations, but in others it becomes costly. Here’s an example. Let’s say a testamentary trust is created for an 8-year-old to hold assets until she turns 25. For seventeen years, any distribution of assets will have to take place through the court. Therefore, while it was less costly to set up than a living trust, the costs of court proceedings over the seventeen years could add up quickly and easily exceed the cost of setting up the living trust in the first place.

If someone involved in the estate is litigious and likely to contest a will or a trust, having the court involved on a regular basis may be an advantage.

Having an estate planning attorney create the trust protects the grantor and the beneficiary in several ways Trusts are governed by state law, and each state has different requirements. Trying to set up a trust with a generic document downloaded from the web could create an invalid trust. In that case, the trust may not be valid, and your wishes won’t be followed.

Once a testamentary trust is created, nothing happens until you die. At that point, the trust will be created, and assets moved into it, as stipulated in your last will and testament.

The trust can be changed or annulled while you are living. To do this, simply revise your will with your estate planning attorney. However, after you have passed, it’ll be extremely difficult for your executor to make changes and it will require court intervention.

Reference: wtop news (July 19, 2021) “What is a Testamentary Trust and How Do I Create One?”

 

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Walt Disney Grandson Loses Appeal of Probate Court’s Decision

Bradford Lund, Walt Disney ’s adult grandson, lost an appeal in a battle with a Los Angeles probate judge who appointed a guardian ad litem without a hearing and rejected a proposed settlement that would have given Lund a $200 million inheritance, says this recent article “Walt Disney’s Grandson Loses Appeal in Fight for $200M Inheritance” from The Hollywood Reporter. Despite its decision, the appellate court described the probate court’s behavior as “troubling.”

In 2020, Lund filed a lawsuit in California federal court arguing that his due process was violated when a County Superior Court judge rejected a settlement reached by family members and trustees. The judge appointed a guardian ad litem, even though an Arizona judge had determined that Lund was not incapacitated and another judge in California stated that Lund had the capacity to choose new trustees.

The lawsuit was later amended to include a claim under the Americans With Disabilities Act because in the 2019 settlement, Judge Cowan had stated that he would not give 200 million dollars to someone who may suffer, at some level, from Down syndrome.

Six months later, a U.S. District judge dismissed the matter. During the appeals process, the Superior Court discharged the guardian ad litem and granted Lund’s request for a new judge.

The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the dismissal, finding that most of Lund’s claims had become moot, as a result of the judge recusing himself and removing the guardian ad litem. The panel also held that, while the judge’s statements were inappropriate and without factual basis, they were protected by judicial immunity.

It may be small comfort to Lund, but the 9th Circuit judge criticized the probate court and acknowledged his frustration with the system. The district judge no longer serves in probate court, although no connection between his departure and the Lund matter was recognized by the 9th District.

Regarding the ADA claim, the panel of 9th Circuit judges says that judges must remain completely independent, and subjecting judges to liability for grievances of litigants would compromise that.

Reference: The Hollywood Reporter (July 16, 2021) “Walt Disney’s Grandson Loses Appeal in Fight for $200M Inheritance”

 

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